A leadership election is an election that determines that the leadership of a parliamentary party. A leadership election is always held between the members or caucus of the party in question sitting in the House of Representatives and the Senate. A leadership election may result in a new leader, or may confirm the status quo, unless in the case of the death of a party leader. If the party in question is in government, the election of a new leader will result in a new Prime Minister or Premier; if the party is the opposition, the election of a new leader will result in a new Opposition Leader.
A declaration that the leadership of a parliamentary party is vacant or open for re-electio due to a challenge for the leadership is a special form of the leadership election known as a leadership spill.